sub + amp

A subwoofer (or sub) is a loudspeaker designed to reproduce low-pitched audio frequencies known as bass and sub-bass, lower in frequency than those which can be (optimally) generated by a woofer. The typical frequency range for a subwoofer is about 20–200 Hz for consumer products, below 100 Hz for professional live sound, and below 80 Hz in THX-certified systems. Thus one or more subwoofers are important for high quality sound reproduction as they are responsible for the lowest two to three octaves of the ten that are audible. This very low-frequency (VLF) range reproduces the natural fundamental tones of the bass drum, electric bass, double bass, grand piano, contrabassoon, tuba, in addition to thunder, gunshots, explosions, etc.
Subwoofers are never used alone, as they are intended to substitute the VLF sounds of "main" loudspeakers that cover the higher frequency bands. VLF and higher frequency signals are sent separately to the subwoofer(s) and mains by a "crossover" network, typically using active electronics, including digital signal processing (DSP). Additionally, subwoofers are fed their own low frequency enhancement (LFE) signals that are reproduced at 10 dB higher than standard peak level.
Subwoofers can be positioned more favorably than the main speakers' woofers in the typical listening room acoustic, as the very low frequencies they reproduce are nearly omnidirectional and their direction largely indiscernible. However, much digitally recorded content contains lifelike binaural cues that human hearing may be able to detect in the VLF range, reproduced by a stereo crossover and two or more subwoofers. Subwoofers are not acceptable to all audiophiles, likely due to distortion artifacts produced by the subwoofer driver after the crossover and at frequencies above the crossover.While the term "subwoofer" technically only refers to the speaker driver, in common parlance, the term often refers to a subwoofer driver mounted in a speaker enclosure (cabinet), often with a built-in amplifier.
Subwoofers are made up of one or more woofers mounted in a loudspeaker enclosure—often made of wood—capable of withstanding air pressure while resisting deformation. Subwoofer enclosures come in a variety of designs, including bass reflex (with a port or vent), using a subwoofer and one or more passive radiator speakers in the enclosure, acoustic suspension (sealed enclosure), infinite baffle, horn-loaded, tapped horn, transmission line, bandpass or isobaric designs. Each design has unique trade-offs with respect to efficiency, low-frequency range, loudness, cabinet size, and cost. Passive subwoofers have a subwoofer driver and enclosure, but they are powered by an external amplifier. Active subwoofers include a built-in amplifier.The first home audio subwoofers were developed in the 1960s to add bass response to home stereo systems. Subwoofers came into greater popular consciousness in the 1970s with the introduction of Sensurround in movies such as Earthquake, which produced loud low-frequency sounds through large subwoofers. With the advent of the compact cassette and the compact disc in the 1980s, the reproduction of deep and loud bass was no longer limited by the ability of a phonograph record stylus to track a groove, and producers could add more low-frequency content to recordings. As well, during the 1990s, DVDs were increasingly recorded with "surround sound" processes that included a low-frequency effects (LFE) channel, which could be heard using the subwoofer in home-cinema (also called home theater) systems. During the 1990s, subwoofers also became increasingly popular in home stereo systems, custom car audio installations, and in PA systems. By the 2000s, subwoofers became almost universal in sound reinforcement systems in nightclubs and concert venues.
Unlike a system's main loudspeakers, subwoofers can be positioned more optimally in a listening room's acoustic. However subwoofers are not universally accepted by audiophiles amid complaints of difficulty "splicing" the sound with main speakers around the crossover frequency. This is largely due to the subwoofer driver's non-linearity producing harmonic and intermodulation distortion products well above the crossover frequency, and into the range where human hearing can "localize" them, wrecking the stereo "image".

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  1. J

    Amp problem?

    I have an amp and subs in my car. The amp power light blinks and subs stop working and it goes in and out when music is played. I made sure all the connections were solid, Checked fuses. Not sure where to go from here! Any recommendations?
  2. B

    Need help with the design of my sub and amp system

    I came to a conclusion that i need to install a sub in my car(Ford Cougar 1999 or in USA Mercury Cougar) as of right now i have an aftermarket head unit and speakers. The head unit is Kenwood kmm-bt205 and the speakers are 4 Hertz speakers and 2 tweeters (I don't know any details about them...
  3. ryanpowell41

    Help with my alpine type r10s 500rms

    So I have a pair of alpine type r 10s the grey ones 500watt rms 1000watt rms to both they are the dual 4ohm. I want to get max power I can with my amp I have and I’m not sure how I wire them to my amp and in the’s a CT Sounds CT-1000.1D Compact Class D Car Audio Monoblock Amplifier, 1000...
  4. C

    COMPLETED FS: Car Audio Lot Amps/Speaker/Subs

    Use to be active a lot on this site, been a while and had to create a new account because I lost my info. Selling multiple items Massive Audio 84 subwoofers $80/$60 (have some cosmetic wear) Hifonics ZRX3000.1D $200 (Like New) Focal 165A1 components $180 (New) Infinity Kapp 10.11t Tweeters...
  5. Jace14

    Can i just connect my mid to high speakers to my radio?

    Hey guys, so im making my first build on a old 1988 toyota 4runner and im installing some new Pioneer 250w mids and highs with a Magnat ultra 300 Reflex subwoof and a Magant rock 4000 amp. Because english isnt my first language its a bit hard for me to understand all of the tutorials so i just...
  6. C

    2 DVC 4 ohm to mono block 1 ohm

    Picked up 2 12" Pioneer TS-A300D4 4-ohm DVC subs with 500W RMS n 1500W Peak. Got a KAC-9105D amp. What's gonna be the optimal way to wire these? Manual says RMS 500W per channel @ 4-ohms, or 900W @ 1-ohms stable (output regulated to 900 watts). Amp is mono but has 2 outputs that are internally...
  7. T

    Sub keeps going out. Why?

    I have a 2015 Audi A5 coupe that was taken to a an audio shop back in 2019 to get subs installed. At this time, I had bought a Skar audio package online, it had 2 8in subs, the wiring kit, and a 1200w amp. It was my first sound system, so I just got what my friends had. The 2 8’s lasted for...
  8. HughBushor

    HELP My Amplifer Went into protect mode and I can no longer hear my sub

    I will be the first to admit I am not familiar with any of this but I had bought a 1200 watt 12” bundle from skar over a year ago and had the intentions of putting it in with a buddy long story short a year later I decided to get it done by a professional because we made no progress, $400 later...
  9. R

    No sound after blowing radio fuse

    Hey guys, I have a 1 sub, 2 speaker set up running off an aftermarket head unit and amp. Everything was working great for a few weeks. The other day I unplugged the head unit and accidentally sparked the main power wire when it touched some metal in the dash. This blew the radio fuse under the...
  10. H


    I was running a test tone and put my DMM AND as soon as the test leads made contact to the speaker outputs it’s sparked and my amp switched into protect mode for 10 seconds thoughts? Is it safe?

    Wiring 2 JL subs ho boxs to one amp

    I have this amp And two of these subs in box From website "The woofer's dual 4Ω voice coils are internally wired in parallel to present a 2Ω load. Terminal: The...
  12. G

    Anyone ever used these?????

    I just stepped up my bass game an bought this combo. Can anyone please help I can't find a review on these for anything. Just curious what kind of performance I can expect.
  13. D4LL4S_85

    Sun cutting out….

    Okay, first off thanks for taking a few mins to read and possibly help me out… ok so I have 2 fosgate p2s 12s on my 05 Silverado and a 600.1 mono block alpine amp …bought a sundown v2 10 but think I got ripped off on that one …anyways. So I installed my system and when I turn it up to high...
  14. N

    I have tons of tiny questions if someone is willing to answer

    I plan on purchasing a U-12 1500w D2 Sundown and Cab-22 2200w AMP. Any problems with these?(Stock Electrical Sys)(Aftermarket Radio)(Already have all the wiring setup) How do I wire it to 1 OHM(someone on reddit told me that) I dont understand OHMs yet. What is Bridging and will I need to use...
  15. B

    Need help asap subwoofer problems

    Hello I have two 4000w subs with a 1 inch box Also i have a smart 3 taramp 3000w amp With 4gauge wire. Amp keeps going into protection and turns right back on after certain volume they hit hard untill i push the volume to high??? Plz help do i need 0gauge wire or another amp
  16. D

    COMPLETED JL Audio Subs & Amps in Ported Enclosure

    -Two JL Audio 12W7AE-3 Subwoofer Drivers -Two JL Audio HD750/1 Monoblock Class D Wide-Range Amplifiers -One HD600/4 Four Channel Class D Full-Range Amplifier These five items were bought from JL Audio for $4,689.95 plus tax. The ported enclosure was customized to fit in my Jeep Wrangler...
  17. J

    COMPLETED Like New - JL Audio XD 10005v2 Amp & JL Audio W6v3 in High Output Box

    *One 12 inch W6v3 in a high output box, and one JL Audio XD 10005v2 amp* Purchased in March of last year. Amp powered the sub and 4 focal interiors (original receipt for sub and amp available). I purchased them and had them installed in my Lexus by a local car audio shop. I'm now looking to...
  18. S

    Sub doesn't play when my car is moving

    I recently installed a sub and amp into my sister's car, its a 2002 Chevy blazer it has a stock stereo. I installed a line output converter because there were no RCA connections and I wired the remote wire to a wire that said it was 12v on a website's wiring diagram (I can post it if needed)...
  19. N


    Hey all, I am kinda new to the technical things of car audio. I recently put 4 10” R2D4 rockfords running out at 2 ohms in a sealed box to a JBL A1000 amp. I’m curious as where I should set my LPF. I have my gain set at about 44 volts. The subs frequency response are 45-250 hz with sensitivity...
  20. G

    Subs making noise, help

    I wired up a sub and amp about a year ago and everything worked fine. Something happened and my sub stopped working. I bought a new amp and sub thinking either could be the problem. I never changed any of the wiring. Everything is still the same besides the amp amd sub. I started up my car and...
  21. npal_77

    Sub amp issues

    Hey everyone, So I just recently switched my sub and amp to a car I just bought. It's a 05 Acura TL, which has a stereo that's difficult to remove and retain all channels/speakers. I tapped the stock subwoofer remote wire, ran that and my power to the back, tapped the stock sub's signal and ran...
  22. Jeano221

    Subs amp going into protection mode after turning it up HELP

    So I’m having a issue with my amp going into protection mode after turning the radio up, it’s a stock bmw radio and the positive and ground are 11.90 when cars off and 13.60 when car is on, I switched amp snd still did the same thing... don’t know what else to check. Do if anyone can Help me out...
  23. S

    Are 3 12” sub setups good or just a weird gimmick

    I was trying to find some info about 3 12” sub boxes and setups but I couldn’t find much info on if they are good or just a waste of money. I want to slowly upgrade my car audio system and one of my main concerns is that I listen to a lot of different music that is mastered very differently...
  24. N

    Skar vs Rockford

    putting some subs in my girlfriends car, she doesnt want anything too crazy so im debating on getting her either 2 p3 12’s or 2 skar vxf 12’s. also need an amp suggestion for the subs. thank u
  25. Maddog456

    Old setup going into newer car. Need new amp?

    Ive had this build for a while now. 2 MTX JackHammer JH4512-04 12" 4-ohm subwoofer and a Pioneer 800w GM-7300M Mono subwoofer amplifier 360 watts RMS x 1 at 2 ohms. I was told to get this by some people so thought it was good at the time and for my wallet. I put it in a 02 focus had some...
  26. J

    Need some help picking out a sub and amp setup

    So currently I'm looking to put a sub in my 350z, I came across a photo that shows how to make a sub box that fits perfect. It only provides about .64 cubic feet so finding a sub is hard, I found this skar sub ( which...
  27. Jgrif593

    Monoblock Amp with Two Sets of Terminals wired Parallel

    I have a Skar RP-800.1D, it is a monoblock with 2 sets of speaker terminals. I know that this is for easier wiring/ more space for wires. My question is when I wire this into my DVC sub, can I just run + to +, + to +, - to -, and - to -, and would this end up as parallel wiring? -For any...
  28. G

    Combining Power for Amps

    I am planning out my install and want to run a single power cable from the battery to the trunk, then split into two 4 gauge cables to power a sub amp and a speaker amp. Each are rated for 4 gauge power. My thought is to use a larger fuse at the battery and then 2 individual fuses at the split...
  29. AccordExL2k15

    Remote wire problem Accord 2015 ex-l navi coupe

    Hey, I just installed a pre-amplified sub to the OEM sound system. The huge problem is that I can't find a good source for my remote wire. I tried taping into the rear speaker wire (this has worked on my 09 Yaris and 08 CSX-S) but it doesn't seem to work here. I then ran the remote cable to the...
  30. B

    amp question/help

    Hey everyone Im a “noobie “ to the car audio world. I have a 2011 Corolla & Google says my stock alternator runs 100 amps. Would that be enough to run an all in one enclosure sub/amp.? or am I looking at needing upgrade my alternator.? 800w Maximum Power RMS: 200 Watts Impedance: 2 Ohm
  31. Busyb318

    Need help with subwoofer and amp wiring

    I just installed two DS18 genx 12 inch subwoofers and a DS18 candy mini monoblock amp. The subs are dual 4 ohm rated at 450 rms each I have them wired at a 1ohtm load at amp which is rated at 1000 watt rms 1 ohm or at 450 rms at 4ohm. For two days it has been sounding good . Now it when I...
  32. R

    Small Off Grid Sound System 12V

    I want to upgrade my jbl Partybox 300, which is a battery powered boombox by adding an aditional subwoofer. Would it be possible to hook up a Sub and Amp directly to a car battery? I was thinking of purchasing second hand one, something like the Edge EDB10A-E2, it has a built in amp, which is...
  33. mrpep

    Taramps and mofo sub

    So I bought a mofo 104x cause it’s 1200 rms and I threw a taramps he 3000 amp at it, running this at 2ohms and the amp should be able to put out like 1500 rms at 2ohms. So I have the sub in a ported and it’s not as loud as I expected. I start clipping so it’s pushing the power out so I back off...
  34. I

    No audio out of stock speakers when sub is on?

    Hello, I have a 2006 Honda Civic, running a Boss R110m amp with 2 8ohm subs in series, using a PAC-SNI 35 LOC, with stock head unit. I have the amp powered getting the remote turn on wire from a fuse in the fuse box, and I will be hooking it up to the proper wire soon, but for now it powers on...
  35. D

    Too Much Power to Subs?

    I recently purchased a Crescendo BC3500D. I have 2 American Bass XFL 12's rated at 1000rms and 2000 Peak. My plan was to wire them up as shown here But that would mean 3875 watts rms from...
  36. D

    Please help with all possible outcomes and solutions

    Ok, i have a problem with my amp going into protect mode if i hook up more than my 2 12s and i need to know what wiring method to use and what to hook up.... i have a 1200watt 4ohm bridgeable ssl amp, 2 300 rms max 4ohm dual 12s, 2 300 rms max 4ohm mtx audio 10s, and 2 300 rms max 4ohm kicker...
  37. I

    Help finding everything i would need for this setup.

    Hello, i am new to car audio so i don't know that much yet but im going to be getting 4 sundown SA series 12"s and wondering what i would need to power it all. I was looking at the Crescendo Audio BC3500D for the amp so 3500w power, would i need a new alternator? new battery i have no idea i...
  38. S

    Dual 10" sub build in floor of trunk in replace of spare tire

    So im looking to rebuild the floor of my trunk and have two 10" subs, amp and capacitor installed in the floor of the trunk but I need help/ideas for how I would be able to really build it as in framing. I own a 2005 mazda 3 hatchback and im looking to hopefully have two 10" subs amp and...
  39. S

    I have no idea what I'm doing... (amp and sub upgrade)

    Hey guys, happy holidays! I know close to ZERO about car tech or audio tech. I would not describe myself as an audiophile by any means but I do know that when I listen to music I like listening to good quality sound whether it be in my car or anywhere. In February of 2014 I decided I wanted to...
  40. H

    What do you think of this setup?

    Would these two pieces of a system be well suited for each other? Amp - BOSS AUDIO AR1600.2 Armor 1600-Watt Full Range, Class A/B 2-8 Ohm Stable 2 Channel Amplifier with Remote Subwoofer Level Control Subs x2 - Infinity Reference 1262w 12-Inch 1200-Watt High-Performance Subwoofer (Dual Voice...