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Reload Thread: Shorting Rings - Why do we use them ?

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    Shorting Rings - Why do we use them ?

    Pulling this from my other forums... a good read for those that want to learn more :


    People ask me this alot... the short answer is that they make the speaker better. The long answer can be shown on some graphs.



    This graph shows inductance over excursion for a basic motor design. The center is at rest, left is rear stroke, and right is forward stroke.

    Why is the graph shaped this way ?

    Have you ever looked at inductors for a crossover ? You can get a high value in a small package with an iron core. So... what is a speaker motor ? A partially iron core inductor!

    As the coil moves back it gets more iron in the core! So the inductance rises. As it moves forward it gets more air in the core so it drops. Pretty cool, huh ?

    Now... the field can be absorbed by a conductive material in or around the coil -- so shorting rings come into play.

    One approach, which we use on the SA series, Z v.3 series, and NS v.2 series, is a pole cap shorting ring -- note how it reduces forward inductance and at rest inductance. But not much in the way of rearward...

    Well the SA Line, the NS v.2/v.3 and Z v.2/v.3 both have a large magnet ID ring -- notice the huge effect on rearward inductance and at-rest inductance ?



    Now... having BOTH rings like the SA Line, the NS v.2/v.3 and Z v.3 has a huge effect across the board! Not only is the inductance more linear but it is much much lower.

    Why is this good ?

    1) More power delivery to the coil as inductance causes "rise"
    2) Less distortion -- inductive distortion is odd order and unpleasant; although a fairly small part of total distortion.
    3) More high-end extension as inductance is a 6dB per octave low-pass crossover.
    4) These rings also act as heat-sinks; although this effect is not a large reason to use them in and of itself.

    Can a speaker sound good without them ? Sure! Many great sounding speakers don't use them and they are pretty expensive too so don't always represent a good price to performance ratio. I do not plan to use magnet ID rings on lines less expensive than the SA series, for example, as the ring represents such a high % of the total cost of the speaker at that point (large chunk of aluminum, copper, or brass).

    But they do have benefits and I figured some of you might like to know what those are.

    -----



    This thin sleeve has a nice effect at rest and on rear-ward -- seems to lose effect combined with the magnet ID ring, though, as that is equal to the magnet ID ring only.

    -----

    So now lets do a thick sleeve :

    Full 1.0mm thick -- and the effect is MUCH better and also alleviates the issue of being cancelled out by the magnet ID ring.

    The only problem is you need to add more motor to compensate for this type of sleeve as it widens the gap a good bit -- for this example the pole had to go down from 35.7mm OD to 33.7mm OD to fit this sleeve.

    If the design budget allows for this then no problem -- the issue you end up with is spending more money on the motor by adding magnet to it.

    The benefit is that the sleeve is the most linear method simulated -- the Le curve is completely flat in this case.

    In most cases price to performance the magnet ID ring would be a better selection unless you are going for ultimate reference level.



    -----


    * SA motor -- the top aluminum piece acts as a pole cap ring.
    * The brass piece is an example magnet ID ring from a Z v.2 motor. This goes around the inside of the magnets below the top plate / above the back plate.


    * Acoustic Elegance drivers with pole sleeve shorting rings

    -----

    We used a pretty small motor for this discussion... 120mm OD magnet utilized.

    When I made enough room for the sleeve we dropped off 34% of the motor force factor (BL^2/RE) -- in order to get this back the magnet had to go all the way up to 150mm OD and in turn the back and top plate OD both had to expand as well. So much more steel and much more magnet.

    634g magnet to a 1109g magnet -- we had to gain 75% magnet mass.

    Total motor went from 1890g to 3112g -- so a 65% gain overall in mass not counting mass added by the sleeve.

    So it is fairly significant in terms of cost to get a highly functional sleeve and to "gain back" the desired motor force lost by making room for it. And again, if this pans out for the target cost of the driver these thick sleeves do work great.







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    Re: Shorting Rings - Why do we use them ?

    this is very good learned lots from this kinds of test! you shuld quiz me



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    Re: Shorting Rings - Why do we use them ?

    Thanks a bunch for the graphs, Jacob.



    Quote Originally Posted by audioholic View Post
    Saying "clipping doesn't kill speakers" is a half-truth at best. Technically no, clipping itself does not hurt the speaker. But in clipping your amp, you can easily create a situation that WILL kill the speaker. Was the squared waveform the DIRECT cause of the failure? No. In the end, the answer is, always has been, and can only be... heat kills speakers. BUT, clipping increases heat generation, sometimes by a drastic amount. So to start a thread simply to state that clipping does not hurt speakers is, again, a half-truth at best.

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    Re: Shorting Rings - Why do we use them ?





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    Re: Shorting Rings - Why do we use them ?

    Nice experiment Jacob.



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    Re: Shorting Rings - Why do we use them ?

    does the z v.3 basket come with a shorting ring at the bottom or separate ?




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    Re: Shorting Rings - Why do we use them ?

    Quote Originally Posted by alfanso View Post
    does the z v.3 basket come with a shorting ring at the bottom or separate ?
    The Z v.2 is the only sub we've sold that offered a top shorting ring.

    The v.3 does not offer that as an option but has two internal rings (pole cap and magnet ID).




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    Re: Shorting Rings - Why do we use them ?

    Good post Jacob. Also just to add a few things.. The Acoustic elegance woofers with the full sleeve run very tights gaps to gain extra motor force which is another way to make up for the lack of BL.. Also as you mentioned, but it's always an issue, it's inductance vs excursion that matter, not necessarily overall inductance. Even if a woofer has high inductance, if it is low enough to play as high as you need, and that inductance value won't change as the woofer moves much then it can still be a VERY good sounding subwoofer.. However, lower LE values do tend to correlate with less variance in most cases as to get a very low value you need to properly utilize rings or sleeves. However, some might look at your NS line which still has a fairly high inductance value and think it won't sound good, however, if you did a good job keeping it linear it may indeed not be any issues when used within it's usable bandwidth.



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    Re: Shorting Rings - Why do we use them ?

    And...this is why we love Sundown subs haha

    Any other well-known car audio companies utilize this technology in their subs? What are some good examples?



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    Re: Shorting Rings - Why do we use them ?

    Quote Originally Posted by Suicide Bobb View Post
    And...this is why we love Sundown subs haha

    Any other well-known car audio companies utilize this technology in their subs? What are some good examples?
    Quite a few Im sure




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    Re: Shorting Rings - Why do we use them ?

    Great post, Jacob. Many of us appreciate your contribution to the industry and parrticipation in these forums.




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    Re: Shorting Rings - Why do we use them ?

    Quote Originally Posted by Suicide Bobb View Post
    And...this is why we love Sundown subs haha

    Any other well-known car audio companies utilize this technology in their subs? What are some good examples?
    this has been around since as long as I can remember. Sundown so far has been the only company to actually explain why they use them. Most are to scared they are giving away secrets.



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    Re: Shorting Rings - Why do we use them ?

    Quote Originally Posted by Suicide Bobb View Post
    And...this is why we love Sundown subs haha

    Any other well-known car audio companies utilize this technology in their subs? What are some good examples?
    Many of the TC built subs use shorting rings of some sort (including tc9, 3hp, and '05 shocker Sig and neo sig that I know for sure). Not sure about LMS based drivers.




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    Re: Shorting Rings - Why do we use them ?

    DD super charged option



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    Re: Shorting Rings - Why do we use them ?

    Hmm, you learn something everyday.



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